On 29 March 2017, the UK government formally notified the European Union of its intention to withdraw from the EU.
On 19 June 2017, the United Kingdom and the European Commission took up negotiations on the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union and, after intensive negotiations, agreed in November 2018 on a and a political declaration setting out the framework for the future relationship. At a special meeting of the European Council (Article 50 TEU) on 25 November 2018, the Heads of State and Government endorsed the Withdrawal Agreement and adopted the on the framework for the future relationship.
Essential elements of the withdrawal agreement are grandfathering arrangements for the rights of living in the UK and British citizens living in the EU and the fulfilment of the UK’s financial obligations under the current Multiannual Financial Framework. A transition period until the end of 2020 is also planned. This period can be extended once by a maximum of two years by virtue of a joint decision of the EU and the United Kingdom. During this period, EU law will continue to apply to the United Kingdom in principle, but without the UK being represented in the EU institutions. The UK would also remain a member of the EU internal market and customs union during this period. The agreement also contains governance rules to ensure effective implementation and enforcement of the agreement. The Northern Ireland Protocol will take effect at the end of the transition period unless an agreement on the future relationship with the EU has been negotiated that avoids a hard border between Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Protocol provides for a single EU customs territory with the United Kingdom, with a common external tariff and rules to ensure a level playing field. In addition, the EU customs regime and other EU rules will continue to apply in Northern Ireland.
You can find an overview of the contents of the Withdrawal Agreement .
The political declaration on the framework for the future relationship reaffirms the goal of achieving an ambitious, broad, deep and flexible partnership, especially in the fields of business and security. In the economic sphere, the creation of a free trade area combined with regulatory and customs cooperation is planned. This will be underpinned by rules that ensure a level playing field. The partnership designed to regulate the future relationship will only be negotiated and concluded once the United Kingdom has left the EU.
What happens next?
The next steps for the entry into force of the Withdrawal Agreement are its approval or formal ratification by the European Parliament and the British Parliament.
On the European side, the withdrawal agreement was forwarded to the European Parliament for approval. On the British side, the agreement will be approved in a two-stage process. The British House of Commons must first approve the agreement before the House of Commons and the House of Lords can formally ratify it. The British Parliament voted by a majority against the agreement on 15 January, 12 and 29 March 2019.
On 21 March, the EU27 Heads of State and Government reaffirmed at the European Council meeting (Art. 50 TEU) that the withdrawal agreement – as it has been negotiated – would not be renegotiated. In addition, they decided to extend the withdrawal period until 12 April.
On 10 April 2019, the European Council (Article 50 TEU) again unanimously and in agreement with the UK Government extended the deadline for withdrawal under Article 50 until 31 October 2019. The aim is to give UK policymakers more time to create clarity on important questions concerning the adoption of the Withdrawal Agreement and the nature of the future relationship.
In its , the European Council confirmed that the United Kingdom must participate in the European elections in May if it is still a member of the European Union at this time. It asserted that should the UK fail to uphold this obligation and not hold elections, it would automatically leave the EU on 1 June 2019.
The European Council also confirmed that the Withdrawal Agreement would not be renegotiated. At the same time, however, it reaffirmed its readiness to adapt the Political Declaration in some circumstances at the UK's request. During the extension of the so-called Art. 50 deadline, no negotiations on the future relationship can be taken up.
Finally, the European Council underlined its clear expectation that the United Kingdom adhere to the principle of loyal cooperation and, in particular, that it does not impede the EU’s further development.
The EU has thus done all it can to support an orderly withdrawal. However, the risk of a no-deal Brexit on 31 October 2019 still remains.
Brexit preparations by the Federal Government
Since the summer of 2016, the German Federal Government has been working hard to prepare for the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the EU and is taking precautions for all conceivable scenarios:
The Federal Government continues to advocate an orderly withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU. In view of the transition period provided for in the Withdrawal Agreement, a has been adopted.
At the same time, the Federal Government is also preparing for a no-deal Brexit. In this case, the EU rules would no longer apply to the United Kingdom as of 1 November 2019. This would have far-reaching consequences for citizens, business and the administration.
In order to cushion the consequences of a no-deal Brexit, the Federal Government has taken a number of legal measures and measures below the level of legislation. These include the . The is to ensure that Brexit itself does not trigger undesired consequences for taxation even though all the main tax measures will have already been adopted before the departure. Also, the act will include provisions on financial services which aim to avoid undesirable effects due to a no-deal departure. The Fourth Act to Amend the Transformation Act (in German), which entered into force in January, extends the possibilities to organise an orderly switch from a “limited” to a German corporate structure. Further to this, other measures below the level of legislation have been initiated, e.g. relating to residency and labour market issues, the staffing of the customs service and various licensing bodies.
FAQs on the consequences that a disorderly Brexit will have for companies can be found .
EU preparations for Brexit
As it prepares for Brexit, the Federal Government is closely coordinating its actions with its European partners and the European Commission. The European Commission is also working intensively to prepare for the UK’s withdrawal from the EU. In July 2018, it presented a explaining various possible exit scenarios and providing specific advice for various fields of action. The Communication is addressed to all EU citizens and companies that could be affected by Brexit. In November 2018, the European Commission published a outlining the measures to be taken by the EU in the event of a disorderly departure of the United Kingdom. In December 2018, the European Commission issued a outlining specific emergency measures to be taken at European level in the event of a hard Brexit.
Companies in particular are called upon to actively prepare for legal changes. As the United Kingdom will becoms a third country, this can lead to drastic changes depending on whether follow-up arrangements are made for the future relationship and on what these are. These changes may affect, for example, trade in goods and the provision of services. Therefore, the European Commission has published more than 90 notices () which outline the impact of Brexit in various fields that are important to the economy and which include necessary preparatory measures. The European Commission has also published an up-to-date and a .
Further information on the preparations for Brexit can be found on the website of the . A catalogue with questions and answers is also available on the website of the .
Associations and other organisations are also offering comprehensive information on their websites about the impact of and preparations for Brexit:
The United Kingdom in the European Union
The United Kingdom joined the European Union on 1 January 1973, together with Denmark and Ireland. This brought the number of Member States to nine. The United Kingdom comprises Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland)
and Northern Ireland. With around 65 million inhabitants, the UK accounts for 12.8 per cent of the total EU population. On 23 June 2016, UK citizens voted in a referendum to leave the European Union.
Current economic relations with the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom is Germany’s sixth most important trading partner (trade volume in 2018: €119.03 billion). For Germany, the UK ranks fifth in terms of exports and eleventh in terms of imports. In 2018, the volume of German
exports to the United Kingdom totalled €82.09 billion. UK imports amounted to €36.94 billion.
Around 2,200 German enterprises employing approx. 412,000 people are doing business in the United Kingdom. German investors in the United Kingdom include Siemens, Bosch, BMW, VW, RWE, E.ON, Deutsche Telekom, Deutsche Post, Linde and Heidelberg Zement. In 2016, German direct and indirect investment in the United Kingdom totalled €118 billion.
In the same year, more than 1,400 UK firms employing a total of around 267,000 members of staff operated in Germany (source: Bundesbank). In 2016, UK direct and indirect investment in Germany totalled €42.4 billion, focussing on the manufacturing industry, the chemical sector and the oil industry (including BP, Shell, GKN, Rolls Royce).
Possible impact of the withdrawal on the German and European economies
Brexit will have economic repercussions for the EU Member States and especially for the United Kingdom. The extent of this impact will much depend on what the future relationship between the EU and the UK looks like.
A study by the ifo Institute commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy contains an initial assessment of the economic impact on the German and European economies. Even in the most unfavourable
scenario, the impact of Brexit on the EU economy, and the German economy in particular, ought to be manageable in the long term. That said, there may well be some sectors that are hit harder by these developments. You can find the study (in German) .