Clean Energy Ministerial - CEM
The is a multilateral forum established to promote a sustainable global energy supply. It was set up at the initiative of the USA. Prior to the COP-15 climate conference in Copenhagen in 2009, the major economies - who are all substantial emitters of greenhouse gases - drew up ten technology action plans for a number of low-carbon technologies. These were intended as constructive input for the negotiations. Within the CEM, these technology action plans have been translated into initiatives focusing on specific issues and technologies. The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy heads the Multilateral Solar and Wind Working Group along with Denmark and Spain. As part of this working group, a 'global atlas' was launched. This delineates areas where there is potential for developing renewable energy. The atlas project, to which Germany made a heavy contribution (work undertaken by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, and, from 2014, by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy), is now being continued by IRENA. The multilateral working group has also developed studies on increasing the potential for value creation from renewable energy. It is additionally involved in initiatives to raise the energy efficiency of electric appliances, as well as initiatives on electric mobility and smart grids.
Other implementing initiatives within the CEM are dedicated to bioenergy, hydropower, sustainable cities, improved access to energy in developing countries, and gender mainstreaming in the energy sector. The progress made within these initiatives is presented to ministers at an annual conference, the last of which was held in Mérida, Mexico in May 2015. The seventh Clean Energy Ministerial Meeting is scheduled to be hosted by the USA in May 2016. The first ministerial conference was held in Washington, D.C. in 2010.
Energy Charter Treaty
The Energy Charter is a political declaration that was signed in 1991. The Charter launched the Energy Charter Process, in which the countries of eastern and western Europe express their will to increase the level of cooperation in the energy sector.
The Energy Charter of 1991 is to be distinguished from the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) of 1994, the latter setting out rights and obligations under international law concerning access and protection of investments, transit, and trade in the area of energy. It entered into force together with a Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects in 1998. The ECT has been signed by 51 countries, including all the EU member states, the republics of the former Soviet Union, Japan, the European Community (now part of the European Union), and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM), with a view to developing the potential for energy in the contracting parties and safeguarding energy security. The Treaty contains binding rules on investment in production and generation, trade in energy, energy transit and the protection of foreign investment. It also contains dispute-settlement mechanisms for state-state and investor-state disputes. The Protocol on energy efficiency promotes energy efficiency policies and cooperation on energy efficiency.
The ECT remains today the only multilateral agreement containing legally binding rules on energy cooperation at multilateral level. If obligations under the Treaty are violated, sanctions can be imposed on the member states. The ECT also stipulates the Energy Charter Conference and the Energy Charter Secretariat as institutions in which discussion of energy-policy issues can take place, and in which the ECT can be worked on and amended. The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy takes part in this process within the above institutions.
On 20-21 May 2015, Germany and 62 other countries joined together with the EU, EURATOM, and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to sign a political declaration called the International Energy Charter. The Charter was developed as a means of enabling other countries to come closer to the Energy Charter Treaty. In signing the International Energy Charter, countries not party to the ECT are, for example, granted observer status.
Since 2014, the G7 energy ministers have been holding regular meetings again. In 2014, the Rome was adopted. In 2015, under the German presidency, Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy Sigmar Gabriel initiated talks on securing a sustainable energy supply. He also launched discussions on how competitiveness and climate protection can be combined when it comes to the energy supply. During the two-day summit, the energy ministers adopted the G7 Hamburg Initiative for Sustainable Energy Security, which was set out in a joint .
At the beginning of May 2016, the energy ministers met again, under the Japanese G7 presidency in Kitakyushu. The issue of energy security was again on the top of the agenda - this year with a focus on economic growth. The G7 energy ministers adopted the at the meeting.
The work of the G20 in the field of energy policy is coordinated in the Energy Sustainability Working Group (ESWG) which was established in 2013.
Since the Australian presidency in 2014, the issue of energy efficiency has taken top priority based on an action plan on energy efficiency adopted by the G20, which is coordinated by the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). Under the Turkish presidency in 2015, topics on the ESWG agenda included access to energy in Sub-Saharan Africa, market transparency, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and the reduction of inefficient subsidies for fossil fuels. The discussion on the expansion of renewable energy and on improving energy efficiency has gained further traction during the Chinese presidency. The meeting of the G20 energy ministers in Beijing at the end of June 2016 focussed on sustainable energy supply. The G20 energy ministers adopted various action plans which are to be implemented in the coming years. They include: a , a and an . The final declaration can be found .
Germany will take over the presidency of the G20 on 1 December 2017. The ambitious work of the Working Group on Energy and Sustainability will be continued also under the German presidency.
SE4ALL - the "Sustainable Energy for All" initiative
Sustainable energy for all by 2030 - that is the aim of the launched by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in 2011. Besides ensuring universal access to modern energy services, the initiative seeks to raise the annual improvement in energy efficiency from 1.2 to 2.4 percent and to double the renewables' share of the global energy mix by 2030.
Today, 1.3 billion people worldwide have no access to electricity. If no additional efforts are undertaken, this figure is forecast to remain essentially unchanged up to 2030. In addition, there are another billion people with unreliable access to electricity and 2.7 billion who rely on traditional biomass.
A high-ranking group of 46 advisors from industry, government and civil society has drawn up an agenda for action detailing steps to be taken to implement the three subordinate targets. To achieve the targets, it will be necessary to combine the efforts made by the public and private sectors as well as those of civil society in order to increase the overall impact. At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio (Rio+20), 50 countries from Africa, Asia, Latin America and the group of the Small Island Developing States, plus a large number of companies, local governments and non-governmental organisations presented the work that they were undertaking in order to support the agenda for action. The initiative thus harnessed the political momentum of the Rio+20 negotiations to mobilise support.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
With 164 member states, the e is the world's leading organisation for global nuclear cooperation. The IAEA, which has its headquarters in Vienna, has set itself the goal of promoting the reliable, safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear technology. The main decision-making bodies are the General Conference, which convenes once a year with the representatives of all member states, and the Board of Governors, which consists of representatives from 35 countries and is the IAEA's steering committee. Since December 2009, Japan's Yukiya Amano has been Director-General of the IAEA. The IAEA Secretariat employs more than 2300 staff. The Federal Republic of Germany acceded to the IAEA in 1957. Germany has been represented on the Board of Governors without interruption since 1972. With a contribution of 6.9%, Germany is the third-largest contributor behind the U.S. and Japan.
The IAEA is an important pillar in the global efforts to prevent military use of nuclear energy. Not least, it is responsible for monitoring the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In particular, it carries out inspections to prevent the misuse of nuclear material for military purposes in violation of international obligations.
In order to achieve its goals, the IAEA promotes measures to enhance the security and protection of nuclear installations and materials. In the context of Technical Cooperation, the fields of basic and materials research, nuclear medicine, industrial applications, agriculture, food hygiene and water supply in developing countries are becoming increasingly important.
The International Energy Agency (IEA)
The is one of the world’s central energy organisations. An autonomous institution within the OECD, it acts as a voice for the industrialised nations, which all consume high levels of energy, and currently consists of 29 OECD member countries. Given the strong growth in energy demand outside the OECD, the IEA has set out to deepen its relationships with major emerging countries that are not OECD members. In November 2015, the IEA granted China, Indonesia and Thailand Association status and it is planned that other countries will follow/there are more countries to follow.
The IEA was founded in response to the first oil crisis in 1974. Its initial mission was to ensure an uninterrupted supply of oil. To achieve this goal, its member countries have agreed to hold at least 90 days of emergency oil stocks.
In addition, the IEA is a central platform for sharing experiences and advising policymakers on virtually all aspects of energy policy, such as questions of energy security, energy efficiency and of cooperation on technology. In terms of expanding renewable sources of energy, the International Energy Agency focuses particularly on how these can be integrated into the overall energy system.
Much-noted central publications of the IEA include regular in-depth country reviews with energy policy recommendations (Germany was last reviewed in 2013) as well as the annual World Energy Outlook (WEO), a comprehensive international reference on energy policy with forecasts currently reaching to 2040.
International Renewable Energy Agency - IRENA
Founded in Bonn in 2009, the is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the worldwide promotion of the development and sustainable use of renewable energy. IRENA has grown to a membership of 143, with another 30 states currently in the accession process.
IRENA has its headquarters in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The IRENA Innovation and Technology Centre, one of its three divisions, is located in Bonn. IRENA currently works with over 100 international experts.
IRENA is the global voice for renewable energy in international debates. It is also a platform for countries to share knowledge on successful approaches to the development of renewable energy, an efficient policy environment for promoting renewables, capacity building, financing mechanisms, and energy-efficiency programmes related to renewable energy. As a knowledge repository, it provides access to information on renewable energy ranging from technological expertise to economic data and to opportunities and development scenarios associated with renewable energy. It advises industrialised and developing countries, as well as emerging economies, on driving growth in renewable energy. As it conducts its work, IRENA cooperates closely with governments, national and international institutes, NGOs, and the private sector.
International Energy Forum (IEF)
The has emerged from the dialogue between oil-producing and oil-consuming countries. Its main aim is to promote global energy security - particularly through high-level, confidence-building energy dialogues and the fostering of greater market transparency. Energy security is of crucial importance for a country like Germany in particular, which is greatly dependent on imports of oil and gas. The Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI) database is at the heart of the efforts to increase transparency in the energy sector. This has been coordinated by the IEF Secretariat since January 2005 - originally as the Joint Oil Data Initiative - and has now been expanded to include the JODI Gas Database, which has been publicly accessible since May 2014. The work is supported by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the IEA, the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the UN Statistics Division (UNSD).
Every two years, the IEF holds what has become the world's largest meeting of energy ministers of producer and consumer countries. The next, 15th IEF ministerial meeting will be held in Algeria in 2016. Germany is represented as a permanent member in the IEF Executive Committee. Like other major energy-consuming countries, Germany also provides financial support to the Secretariat.
The is a global policy network that was founded on the back of the '2004 renewables conference'. The Network, in which Germany has played a huge part - both in its inception and development - plays a key role in supporting countries hosting International Renewable Energy Conferences (IRECs) as they design and organise the event. REN21 is made up of representatives of governments, international organisations, civil society and the private sector - from the fields of energy, the environment and development.
Every year, REN21 publishes the Renewables Global Status Report (GSR), which tracks the annual global growth of renewables. The Report has become the standard point of reference for information on the development of /on investment in renewable energy. The report sets out the current state of installed renewable capacity around the world, as well as its global distribution. It also contains growth targets, policy instruments and information on global investment in renewable energy. Additionally, there is an interactive map providing information specific to individual countries.
The Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP)
The was initiated by the G8 and founded in 2006. The GBEP Secretariat is located at the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Rome. A total of 23 countries and 14 international organisations are currently partners (members) of GBEP, including many industrialised countries. A further 22 countries and 11 international organisations have observer status (including many from Asia and Africa).
One of Germany's key aims is to strengthen and advance the initiative through active involvement in the Partnership. A key milestone here was the development of the GBEP Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy, which enable the use of biomass to be characterised based on various sustainability criteria.