Clean Energy Ministerial - CEM
The is a multilateral forum that was set up to promote sustainable energy generation around the world. It was established at the initiative of the USA. Prior to the COP 15 climate conference in Copenhagen in 2009, the major economies – all substantial emitters of greenhouse gases – drew up ten technology action plans for a number of low-carbon technologies, which were to serve as a constructive contribution to the negotiations. Within the CEM, these technology action plans have been translated into initiatives focusing on specific issues and technologies. The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy heads the Multilateral Solar and Wind Working Group along with Denmark and Spain. As part of this working group, a ‘global atlas’ depicting the places where there is potential for exploiting renewable energy was launched. This delineates areas where there is potential for developing renewable energy. The atlas project, to which Germany has made a heavy contribution (work undertaken by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, and, from 2014, by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy), is now being continued by IRENA. The multilateral working group has also developed studies on increasing the potential for value creation from renewable energy and on the design of auctions for the promotion of renewables. It is additionally involved in initiatives to raise the energy efficiency of electric appliances, as well as initiatives on electric mobility and smart grids.
Other initiatives within the CEM are dedicated to implementing the plans for bioenergy, hydropower, sustainable cities, improved access to energy in developing countries and gender mainstreaming in the energy sector. Every year, the progress made within these initiatives is presented to ministers at the annual conference. The first of these ministerial conferences was held in Washington, D.C., in 2010.
Energy Charter Treaty
The was signed in 1991. It marked the launch of the Energy Charter Process, in which the countries of eastern and western Europe express their will to increase the level of cooperation in the energy sector.
The Energy Charter of 1991 is to be distinguished from the of 1994, the latter setting out rights and obligations under international law concerning access and protection of investments, transit, and trade in the area of energy. It entered into force together with a Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA) in 1998. The ECT has been signed by 51 countries, including all the EU Member States, the republics of the former Soviet Union, Japan, the European Community (now part of the European Union) and Euratom, with a view to developing the potential for energy in the contracting parties and safeguarding the energy security of the EU. The Treaty sets out binding rules on investment in production and generation, trade in energy, energy transit and the protection of foreign investment. It also provides for dispute-settlement mechanisms for the resolution of state-state and investor-state disputes. The Protocol on energy efficiency promotes energy efficiency policies and cooperation on energy efficiency.
The ECT remains today the only multilateral agreement containing legally binding rules on energy cooperation at multilateral level. Where there are violations of obligations under the Treaty, sanctions can be imposed on the member states. The ECT also established the Energy Charter Conference and the Energy Charter Secretariat. These institutions provide a forum for discussion on issues of energy policy and on developing the ECT. The Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy takes part in this process within the above institutions.
On 20-21 May 2015, Germany and 62 other countries joined together with the EU, EURATOM, and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to sign a political declaration called the . The Charter was developed as a means of enabling other countries to move closer to accession to the Energy Charter Treaty. In signing the International Energy Charter, countries not party to the ECT are, for example, granted observer status. In June 2016, the countries party to the ECT decided to extend the tenure of the current Secretary-General, Mr Urban Rusnák to include the period of 2017-2021.
Since 2014, the G7 energy ministers have been holding regular meetings again. In 2014, the Rome was adopted. In 2015, under the German presidency, Federal Minister for Economic Affairs and Energy Sigmar Gabriel initiated talks on securing a sustainable energy supply. He also launched discussions on how competitiveness and climate protection can be combined when it comes to reorganising energy supply. During the two-day summit, the energy ministers adopted the G7 Hamburg Initiative for Sustainable Energy Security, which was set out in a joint .
At the beginning of May 2016, the energy ministers met again, under the Japanese G7 presidency in Kitakyushu. Once again, the issue of energy security was at the top of the agenda, with a strong focus placed on economic growth. At this meeting, the G7 energy ministers adopted the .
Coordination on energy policy within the G20 is organised by the Energy Sustainability Working Group (ESWG), which was established in 2013.
Since the Australian presidency in 2014, the issue of energy efficiency has been a top priority, having been laid out in an action plan on energy efficiency adopted by the G20, which is coordinated by the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC). Under the Turkish presidency in 2015, topics on the ESWG agenda included access to energy in Sub-Saharan Africa, market transparency, renewable energy, energy efficiency, and the reduction of inefficient subsidies for fossil fuels. The discussion on the expansion of renewable energy and on improving energy efficiency has gained further traction during the Chinese presidency. The meeting of the G20 energy ministers in Beijing at the end of June 2016 focused on how to achieve a sustainable energy supply. The G20 energy ministers have adopted various action plans which are to be implemented in the coming years. They include: a , a and an . The final declaration can be found . The final declaration can be found .
Germany took over the G20 Presidency on 1 December 2016. The ambitious work of the Working Group on Energy and Sustainability will also be continued under the German presidency.
SE4ALL – The Sustainable Energy for All initiative
“Sustainable energy for all” is the aim of an launched by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon in 2011. Apart from ensuring universal access to modern energy services, the initiative wants to double the speed of annual energy efficiency improvements and the share of renewables in the global energy mix. These targets are to be attained by 2030
Today, 1.3 billion people worldwide have no access to electricity. Unless additional efforts are made, this figure is forecast to remain virtually unchanged until 2030. The same is true of almost 3 billion people who rely on traditional biomass for their energy supply.
A high-ranking group of 46 advisors from business, government and civil society has drawn up an agenda for action in order to implement the three individual targets. As the relevant steps are then taken, it will be necessary to combine the efforts made by both the public and private sectors and civil society in order to increase the overall impact. At the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio (Rio+20), 50 countries from Africa, Asia, Latin America and the group of the Small Island Developing States, plus a large number of companies, local governments and various groups from civil society, presented their own commitments towards implementing the Action Agenda. The initiative thus succeeded in harnessing the political momentum from the Rio+20 negotiations to mobilise support..
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
With 164 member states, the is the world’s leading organisation for global nuclear cooperation. It is headquartered in Vienna. The IAEA has set itself the goal of promoting reliable, safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear technology. The main decision-making bodies are the General Conference, which once a year brings together representatives of all member states, and the Board of Governors, which consists of representatives from 35 countries and is the IAEA’s steering committee. Since December 2009, Japan’s Yukiya Amano has been Director General of the IAEA. The IAEA Secretariat employs more than 2300 staff. The Federal Republic of Germany acceded to the IAEA in 1957. Germany has been represented on the Board of Governors without interruption since 1972. Germany provides. 6.9% of the funding for the IAEA, making the country the third-largest contributor after the U.S. and Japan
The IAEA is an important pillar in the global efforts to prevent military use of nuclear energy. It is responsible not least for monitoring the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In particular, it carries out inspections to prevent the unlawful misuse of nuclear material for military purposes.
In order to achieve its goals, the IAEA promotes measures to improve security and safety around nuclear installations and fissile materials. In the context of Technical Cooperation, the fields of basic and materials research, nuclear medicine, industrial applications, agriculture, food hygiene and water supply in developing countries are becoming increasingly important.
The International Energy Agency (IEA)
The is one of the world’s most important energy organisations. As an autonomous institution within the OECD, it acts as a voice for the industrialised nations, which all consume high levels of energy, and currently consists of 29 OECD member countries. Given the strong growth in energy demand outside the OECD countries, the IEA has set out to deepen its relationships with major emerging countries that are not OECD members. In November 2015, the IEA granted China, Indonesia and Thailand Association status, with more countries set to follow.
The IEA was founded in response to the first oil crisis in 1974. Its initial mission was to ensure an undisrupted supply of oil. To achieve this goal, its member countries have agreed to hold at least 90 days of emergency oil stocks.
In addition, the IEA is a central platform for sharing experiences and advising policymakers on virtually all aspects of energy policy, such as questions of energy security, energy efficiency and of cooperation on technology. In terms of expanding renewable sources of energy, the International Energy Agency focuses particularly on how these can be integrated into the energy system as a whole.
Much-noted flagship publications of the IEA include regular in-depth country reviews that also set out energy policy recommendations (Germany was last reviewed in 2013) as well as the annual World Energy Outlook (WEO), a comprehensive international reference on energy policy with forecasts currently extending up to 2040..
International Renewable Energy Agency - IRENA
The is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the worldwide promotion of the growth and sustainable use of renewable energy. It was founded in Bonn in 2009 and currently has 149 members, with an another 27 states presently in the accession process.
IRENA is headquartered in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The IRENA Innovation and Technology Centre, one of its three core divisions, is based in Bonn. IRENA currently works with over 100 international experts.
IRENA serves as the global voice in international discussions on renewables. It is also a platform for countries to share knowledge on what approaches have been successful when it comes to developing renewable energy, an efficient policy environment for promoting renewables, capacity building, financing mechanisms, and energy-efficiency programmes related to renewable energy. In its capacity as an advisory body, IRENA provides access to information on renewables, ranging from technical expertise to economic data and scenarios highlighting the potential for developing renewables. It serves as an adviser on renewables to industrialised countries, developing nations, and emerging economies. As it conducts its work, IRENA cooperates closely with governments, national and international institutes, NGOs, and the private sector.
International Energy Forum (IEF)
The is the product of the dialogue that has already been taking place between oil-producing and oil-consuming countries. Its main aim is to promote global energy security - particularly through trust-building high-level energy dialogue and the fostering of greater market transparency. Energy security is of crucial importance for a country like Germany in particular, which is greatly dependent on imports of oil and gas. At the heart of the efforts to increase transparency in the oil sector is the Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI) database. This has been coordinated by the IEF Secretariat since January 2005 - originally as the Joint Oil Data Initiative - and has now been expanded to include the JODI Gas Database, which has been publicly accessible since May 2014. The work is supported by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the IEA, the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE), the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the UN Statistics Division (UNSD).
Every two years, the IEF holds what has become the world’s largest meeting of energy ministers of producer and consumer countries. Germany is a permanent member of the IEF Executive Committee. Like other major energy-consuming countries, Germany also provides financial support to the Secretariat.
The is a global policy network that was founded following the ‘Renewables 2004’ conference. The Network, in which Germany has played a huge part – both in its inception and development, plays a key role in supporting countries hosting International Renewable Energy Conferences (IRECs) as they design and organise the event. REN21 is made up of representatives of governments, international organisations, civil society and the private sector – from the fields of energy, the environment and development.
Every year, REN21 publishes the Renewables Global Status Report (GSR), which tracks the annual global growth of renewables. The Report has become the standard point of reference for information on the development of investment in renewable energy. The report sets out the current state of installed renewable capacity around the world, as well as its global distribution. It also provides information on growth targets, policy instruments and information on global investment in renewable energy. Additionally, there is an interactive map displaying information relating to individual countries.
The Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP)
The was initiated by the G8 and founded in 2006. The GBEP Secretariat is attached to the UN Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in Rome. A total of 23 countries and 14 international organisations are currently partners (members) of GBEP, including many industrialised countries. A further 22 countries and 11 international organisations have observer status (including many from Asia and Africa).
One of Germany’s key aims is to strengthen and advance the initiative through active involvement in the Partnership. A key milestone here has been the development of the GBEP Sustainability Indicators for Bioenergy which enable the use of biomass to be characterised based on various sustainability criteria..